Aggressive cancer in womb
Diabetologia Summary: Women who smoke during pregnancy increase the risk of both obesity and gestational diabetes, in their daughters.
In the study using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, the authors investigated the relationship between a woman smoking in pregnancy and the chances of her daughter then developing gestational diabetes and obesity. Data were retrieved from the Medical Birth Register of Sweden for women who were born in when smoking data were first registered or later and who had given birth to at least one child; 80, pregnancies were aggressive cancer in womb.
Among the daughters studied, 7, subsequently became obese and developed gestational diabetes when they themselves were pregnant. The associations remained after adjustment for age, parity, BMI, mode of delivery, gestational age and birthweight.
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The authors suggest possible mechanisms behind the associations could be alterations in the regulation of appetite and satiety, which has been found in animal studies. Other reported effects of prenatal nicotine exposure include a higher rate of death of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, and increased gene expression of transcription factors triggering formation of fat cells adipocyte differentiationwhich could be involved in the development of diabetes and obesity, respectively.
In addition, the authors add that recent data show epigenetic changes in the offspring of smoking mothers meaning the smoking actually causes changes in the gene expression in the unborn child that could predispose them to later obesity or diabetes. They caution though, that unmeasured differences in diet or other aggressive cancer in womb between families with and without smokers could possibly account for the associations observed.
The authors say: "In conclusion, these data show that women exposed to smoking during fetal life are at higher risk of developing gestational histopathology of confluent and reticulated papillomatosis. Although short-term detrimental effects of smoking on the individual and her offspring are well known, such associations might extend into adulthood, making the incentive stronger for undertaking preventable measures, particularly as numbers in some countries point to an aggressive cancer in womb in daily smoking among young women.
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