Traducere "neuroendocrine" în română

Neuroendocrine cancer of the lung, Color Atlas of Pulmonary Cytopathology


MATERIALS AND METHODS: Imaging studies of neuroendocrine cancer of the lung patients 12 men, mean age 60 years with histopathologically confirmed diagnosis, evaluated in the authors's institution during the last five years were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists, with findings being consensually described focusing on changes observed at computed tomography.

Only one typical carcinoid presented the characteristic appearance of central endobronchial nodule with distal pulmonary atelectasis, while the others were pulmonary nodules or masses.

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The atypical carcinoids corresponded to peripheral heterogeneous masses. Neuroendocrine cancer of the lung out of the three LCNCs was a peripheral homogeneous mass, while the others were ill-defined and heterogeneous.

The 11 SCLCs corresponded to central, infiltrating and heterogeneous masses with secondary pleuropulmonary changes. Keywords: Computed tomography; Lung neoplasms; Neuroendocrine tumors.

Color Atlas of Pulmonary Cytopathology

Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the lung NTLs originate either from Kulchitzky cells, neuroepithelial bodies or from pluripotent stem cells which are present in the bronchial mucosa, with similar pathological features, and being capable of producing and secreting peptide hormones and neuroamines 2. Since the early 's, because of its clinical and histological characteristics, SCLC is classified as a neuroendocrine neoplasia of the lung.

In the present study, the authors describe the main imaging findings in a series of histopathologically confirmed cases of NTL, with emphasis on computed tomography CT findings. Also, the neuroendocrine cancer of the lung make a brief description of the main clinical data, including information on the evolution of the cases, correlating them with radiological and anatomopathological data.

Only histopathologically confirmed cases of primary neuroendocrine tumors of the lung were included in the present study. A total of 22 patients 12 men, mean age neuroendocrine cancer of the lung 60 years, ranging from 32 to 78 years were studied. Considering the retrospective nature of the study, with exams that are part of the clinical routine in the assessment of neuroendocrine cancer of the lung patients, it exempted a term of free and informed consent in addition to the one obtained previously to neuroendocrine cancer of the lung performance of the exams.

Color Atlas of Pulmonary Cytopathology -

Clinical data was obtained after review of the patients' records and imaging studies retrieved from the electronic file system of the authors' institution. Images were reviewed by neuroendocrine cancer of the lung radiologists, and the findings were described in consensus.

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The lesions were evaluated with respect to morphological characteristics, location, dimensions, presence of calcifications, associated changes in the pulmonary parenchyma, lymph node enlargement and presence of distant metastases. All the imaging studies stored in the electronic file system were reviewed, including plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging MRI studies, but the reviewers have particularly focused on the description of CT findings, which is currently the most accurate radiological method and most commonly utilized in the evaluation of lung tumors.

In spite of not being related to the main objective of the present study, the post-treatment follow-up exams, whenever available, were also reviewed for correlation of imaging findings with the clinical progression according neuroendocrine cancer of the lung the type of neoplasia identified at the anatomopatho­logical study.

The description of symptoms was varied, including dyspnea, chronic coughing, chest pain and "repeated pneumonias".

Along the medical records review process, data confirming the presence of paraneoplastic syndrome due to ectopic production of hormones were not found for any of the patients. As regards histological type, the lesions of the 22 patients included: five typical carcinoid lesions, three atypical carcinoid lesions, three LCNCs and 11 SCLCs Table 1.

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Plain radiography could identify the atelectasis in the upper right lobe. At CT, the ovoid endobronchial nodule was identified in the origin of the right upper lobe bronchus.

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The other cases of typical carcinoid lesion presented as lung nodules or masses, either centrally or peripherally located, with smooth or cervical cancer cin 2 margins, homogeneous soft tissue density, and dimensions ranging from 2. No patient presented lymph node enlargement or metastatic lesions at the initial presentation of the disease.

Distal, secondary changes were described in all cases, mainly represented by areas of inflammatory consolidation or atelectasis. All five patients were submitted neuroendocrine cancer of the lung surgical resection either segmentectomy or lobectomy and only one patient presented recurrence of the disease in the clinical follow-up, with mediastinal lymph node enlargement identified six years after diagnosis Figure 3.

Traducere "neuroendocrine" în română

One patient with a typical carcinoid lesion also underwent MRI, which demonstrated the presence of a well defined nodule in the left lower lobe with intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted and hyperintense signal on T2-weighed sequences, also with restriction in diffusion weighted imaging and prominent contrast-enhancement more noticeable in delayed phases and with homogeneous appearance Figure 2.

The three cases of atypical carcinoid tumors were identified both at plain radiography and CT, described as peripheral lung masses with lobulated or irregular contours, with heterogeneous density and contrast-enhancement, dimensions ranging between 3. One lesion presented nodular calcifications identified at plain radiography, but best characterized at CT.

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One patient already presented lymph nodes enlargement and lesions compatible with metastases bone and liver at the initial assessment and evolved to death. Another patient presented suspicious metastic liver lesions at the moment of the diagnosis, progressing with enlargement of the lesions progressive disease and at the time of the present study such patient was undergoing systemic therapy.


In one patient the lesion was resected and no recurrence has been identified at most-recent follow-up. Of the three LCNC patients, one presented a peripheral well-defined mass with homogeneous density, while the other two patients presented heterogeneous, peripheral, ill-defined masses with irregular contours in association with important pleuropulmonary changes Figure 5.

The lesions dimensions ranged from 4.

Distribuie pe: DESCRIERE Respiratory cytopathology is indispensable in the workup of patients suspected of having lung cancer requiring cytologic evaluation and is used increasingly in immunocompromised patients for the identification of infectious diseases. Currently, there is no single text devoted exclusively to Pulmonary Cytology. Color Atlas of Pulmonary Cytopathology is the only text to include, under one cover, up-to-date information on every aspect of Respiratory Cytopathology. The atlas includes techniques of bronchoscopy, brochoalveolar lavage, and fine needle aspiration biopsy, a detailed section on cytopreparatory techniques, liberal use of images on histomorphology to complement cytology, emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls, a detailed section on cytopathology of non-neoplastic conditions, unusual and uncommon lesions, cytology of metastatic lung cancers to other body sites, and a section on pediatric pulmonary cytology. Abundantly illustrated with over color images neuroendocrine cancer of the lung plates, the atlas presents not only the usual cytohistologic patterns of various disease entities, but also focuses on differential diagnostic problems and depicts the differentiating features.

The two patients presenting with heterogeneous neuroendocrine cancer of the lung already presented lymph nodes enlargement and distant metastatic lesions at their initial assessment, and underwent non-surgical therapy, but evolved with progressive disease at follow-up and, later, death. The other patient presented progressive, metastatic disease and currently is still undergoing local and systemic treatment and has not been submitted to surgical resection of the lung lesion.

All of the 11 cases of SCLC presented as lesions of similar radiological appearance, characterized as central masses associated with coalescent lymph node enlargement with infiltrating and heterogeneous aspect, invading vascular structures as well as the adjacent tracheobronchial tree Figure 6.

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Other associated thoracic changes were described in all cases, such as secondary lung lesions, pneumonia, atelectasis, pleural effusion and pleural thickening. At plain radiography, the characterization of the masses was in general more difficult, particularly in the presence of lung atelectasis and large pleural effusion.

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In general, the lesions that could be measured were larger than 5. Calcifications were not identified in any lesion. In the present study, the authors retrospectively reviewed imaging findings in patients with histopathologically confirmed NTL diagnosed in their institution, with emphasis on CT findings. The authors describe five cases of typical carcinoid tumors and three cases of atypical carcinoid tumors.